of the information on this page is courtesy of Joe DeMarco. Note: some of the
this page was compiled using a
technique informally referred to as "counting heads".
It is based on the ongoing study of period documents and
photographs, as well as surviving Shermans. Due to the
limited nature of available reference
sources, some of the information presented here must be
considered as "educated guesswork."
Fisher Body was the sole manufacturer of 75mm M4A3
Shermans with large hatches and wet stowage. It produced 3071 M4A3(75)W's from
February 1944 to March 1945.
Production Order T-9724 : 1711 M4A3(75)W with VVSS
manufactured: Serial Number 48615 / USA 3081212 through S/N 50325 / USA 3082922
Production Order T-11315/1 : approx. 709 M4A3(75)W
with VVSS and 113 with HVSS manufactured: Serial Number 62038 / USA 30115060 through S/N
62859 / USA 30115881
Production Order T-11315/2 : 538 M4A3(75)W with
HVSS manufactured: Serial Number 65714 / USA 30125036 through S/N 66251 / USA
The decision to continue production of 75mm
Sherman tanks in 1944 and 1945
While the Sherman's 75mm
main gun may have been "state of the art" in 1941 and 1942, it was
outmoded as an anti-tank weapon by 1943. Unfortunately, the military
bureaucracy became mired in controversy over the
proper role of tanks, and ultimately failed to develop an effective
replacement when it designed the 76mm gun and its original ammunition.
In any case, most of
the US Army
heads involved with the Tank Program wanted to discontinue production of
75mm Shermans at the end of 1943. However, this was a decision made by
committee, and some members hedged somewhat
by noting “that the complete elimination of the 75m/m gun from the
Medium Tank M4 Series would cause considerable difficulty should any
portion of the Medium Tanks M4 be required in the future to be equipped
with this same gun due to the change-over of the
facilities involved.” It was noted that the British & US Marines
still had requirements for the 75mm Sherman in 1944 and on. They
considered the 75mm's High Explosive round to be markedly superior to
of the 76mm gun. Moreover, the British requested more 75mm Shermans
with M34A1 gun mounts and Oil Gear Traverse Mechanisms, which they
needed for their ongoing Firefly conversion program. In the event, the
75mm Sherman, in the form of the M4A3(75)W continued
in production until March, 1945.
Hulls used for 75mm Wet
Stowage Shermans were of the "ultimate" design, i.e. welded, 47
degree, with large hatches. Not many M4A3(75)W's have survived. Above is Serial
Number 49578, produced in May 1944 and on display in Middletown, Pennsylvania. Note
the sharp nosed differential housing (part Number E8543), which became standard
on US built Shermans after September 1943.
of the first M4A3(75)Ws were shipped to Europe in the weeks and months
following the Normandy Invasion on June 6, 1944. In the first 83 days of
the Campaign, Medium Tank losses in the US Army were higher than
expected, averaging 11 per day. The majority of these were repairable,
but the ability of the Army logisticians to support the build up was
severely strained. Included among the replacement tanks shipped were a
good number of the various types of M4A3s - 75mm, 76mm, 105mm and M4A3E2
Assault Tanks [Jumbos]. It was the goal of US planners to place the
Ford engined Shermans with their updated Second Generation features into
the hands of combat troops as quickly as possible. Thus, an effort was
made to identify the M4A3s with the idea of allocating them where
possible on something of a proportional basis. As of September 17, 1944,
it was reported that 92 M4A3(75)s were discharging or had been
discharged at Utah Beach, along with another 53 at Omaha. A further 140
were "In UK Waters" awaiting berthing spaces on the Continent. The photo
above shows some of the first M4A3(75)Ws to arrive in the ETO (along
with a few M5A1 Light Tanks) in a storage lot in Normandy in July or
August, 1944. These tanks appear to have been processed and made ready
the French 2nd Armored Division appears to have been one of the first
"US" combat units to be issued the new M4A3(75)Ws. Initially equipped
with 165 diesel M4A2(75)s, the Division landed in Normandy in early
August, 1944. Losses were heavy from the start, and in mid August, the
Division, which had not been provided with a reserve pool of M4A2s,
began to draw replacements from US Third Army stocks of gasoline powered
Shermans. Included among them were about 20 M4A3(75)Ws. The
photo above was taken in Paris, near the Palais-Bourbon on August 25,
1944, and shows an interesting pair of replacement Shermans. The
lead tank, "Cherbourg," is a Baldwin built M4 with Continental Radial
engine. Behind is "Saint-Vaast," one of the new M4A3(75)Ws with Ford V8
engine. These tanks were in service with the 2nd Squadron, 12th Regiment
of Cuirassiers. "Cherbourg"
was put out of action perhaps minutes after this photo was taken,
during the attack on the Palais-Bourbon. "Saint-Vaast"
was reported destroyed north of Paris in Le Bourget on August 27, 1944.
Photo courtesy of Arax Djololian, Musée Carnavalet.
Fisher built M4A3(75)s were
designated as having "Wet Stowage." Earlier Ford built M4A3s were
retroactively labeled as "Dry Stowage." Dry Stowage Shermans had most
of the ammunition racks mounted in more vulnerable positions up on the tank's
interior sponson shelves. The Wet Stowage arrangement repositioned the racks to
the floor in ten ten round, vertically oriented bins (above). Four "ready
rounds" were also stored in the turret basket. Photo courtesy of Michael
10 round ammo rack had 3 sealed chambers that were filled with a liquid
"quenching solution." It was thought that if an ammo rack was
penetrated, the "quenching solution" would be dispersed, and at least
slow the progress of an ammunition fire in order to give the crew a few
more seconds to escape. For the tests, the first solution tried was
plain water. The second was water mixed with ethylene glycol to prevent
freezing. This was "suspected of being inflammable" and a third solution
"ethyl sodium potassium phosphate" known as "Ammudamp" was substituted.
Above, the liquid containers on the left are shown removed from the
ammo rack on the right. Photos courtesy of Michael Green.
turret basket of the M4A3(75)Wet is shown above. A four round ready
rack (1) can be seen mounted on the "floor." This was completely enclosed in
1/4 inch of armor with access to the rounds by means of an armored
door. The original Sherman design featured 12 unprotected rounds clipped
to the wall of the turret basket (inset). For the sake of safety, 8
ready rounds were sacrificed over the objections of many commanders and
crews. Ultimately, it was found that the wet stowage "quenching
solution" had little to no effect, and the chambers were ordered drained
and plugged post war. However, "The work on watered ammunition
racks...led to two important recommendations: provide strong enough
doors and sidewalls around the ammunition rack to confine the explosion
and fire to the ammunition compartment and provide an outlet from this
compartment for pressure and flames to be directed to the exterior of
the vehicle." This led to the incorporation of vented type armored
ammunition containers in future tank designs. Hatches can be seen in the
loader's half of the turret basket floor. These gave him access to the
100 main gun rounds stored directly below. In some cases, it was
necessary to rotate the turret in order for the loader to retrieve the
rounds. Left side photo courtesy of Chris Hughes.
M4A3(75)W's were equipped with D78461 turrets, an
improvement over the D50878 turrets used at the outset of Sherman production.
The most important safety feature of the new turret was the inclusion of a
loader's hatch. The turret bustle was raised a few inches in order to clear the
protuberances of the large hatches. Thus, the informal term "high bustle." See this page for more information about the evolution of Sherman 75mm
turrets. Left side photo courtesy of Chris Hughes.
The D78461 turrets of the M4A3(75)W's featured
a protective housing for the gunner's periscope. Next to it can be seen the
commander's vane sight, which replaced the "blade" sight used on earlier
Shermans. Photo courtesy of Chris Hughes.
The 2 inch smoke mortar was standard on the M4A3(75)W. The mortar hole
in the turret was level with the armor at first, but later production units can
be seen with a protruding sleeve and a weatherproofing cap.
the photo for larger size
The 8th Armored Division Dozer
Sherman above was photographed in Germany in March 1945. The features of this
tank, suggest it was produced in August 1944 or later. Note the cap and
retaining chain over the smoke mortar sleeve.
the photo for larger size
It was intended to equip the turrets with the
commander's all round vision cupola, but priority for these cupolas was
given to the new 76mm Shermans coming on line at the same time. Until the supply
caught up with the demand, "turret hatch D69993 with equilabrator" was used.
This was an improved version of the original split hatch commander's cupola, in
that it had integral springs on the hinges, and other features that provided
greater safety and ease for the crew. The new hatch "still" had a pintle
for the .50 Cal. AA MG as on the earlier version. It had been noted from the
start that this was an awkward and even dangerous position in which to stow the
machine gun when travelling.
travelling position for the AA MG was furnished by mounting a pintle (item 1)
and clamp (item 2) on the turret bustle (above, left). When the machine gun was
disassembled, barrel stowage was provided by two clamps (items 3 & 4) on the
turret roof (above, right).
With the transition to the commander's all
round vision cupola in August, 1944, a hinged MG pintle (item 1) and barrel
clamp (item 2) were added to the turret roof. For a short time, the initial MG
stowage travelling configuration was retained, as evidenced by the barrel clamps
(items 3 & 4) in the photo on the left. In September 1944, the barrel
clamps on the roof were replaced by a pair of L shaped brackets affixed to the
turret bustle (items 1, above right).
the photo for larger size
The above shows M4A3(75)W's of CCA 14th Armored Division in Cirey,
France November 23, 1944. The commander's vision cupola begins to appear in
overseas photos about this time. These tanks are in the "first" MG
stowage configuration without the L shaped brackets on the turret bustle. The
fully assembled machine gun can be seen stowed in its canvas cover.
the photo for larger size
An interesting production
variation took place starting in October, 1944. In order to save foundry
capacity, Fisher Body agreed to equip 300 of its M4A3(75)s with earlier D50878
turrets recycled from the retriever conversion program. Baldwin Locomotive Works
was one of the donors, and above can be seen some of the turrets left over from
their M32B1 conversions.
The old turrets were updated to the standard of late
1944 D78461 turrets. Oval loader's hatches were retrofitted (left). The
"thin spot" armor patch was added, if necessary. This particular
D50878 turret was cast by Union Steel, and has their serial number 871,
indicating 1942 production. Its original M34 gun mount was replaced with the
late type of M34A1 mount, and the original commander's split hatch was replaced
with an all round vision cupola.
In order to clear the protuberances of the
large hatches, some material was removed from the lower outside edges of the
D50878 "low bustle" turret. It is subtle, but note the upturned line
at the bottom of the bustle in the left side photo. Readers often ask about the
difference, so we have included a photo of a high bustle D78461 turret (right)
The photo above is from the 13th Armored Division's History.
"Always Available" can be seen to be USA 30115499, indicating October
1944 production, the month when the recycled turrets were introduced. Note how
the low bustle nearly touches the tank's turret splash guard. Most or all of
the recycled turrets appear to have been in the "late" configuration
with the all round vision cupola (as evidenced by the MG pintle), the L shaped
MG brackets and the extended smoke mortar sleeve with cap and chain.
Contrary to Chrysler, Fisher appears to have mounted the cable clamp in
the forward or "standard" position from the start of the production of M4A3 hulls.
Small changes were incorporated by Fisher
during the course of
production. M4A3(75)W's manufactured from startup on
into May 1944 had what the authors think of as the "early" glacis
pattern. This pattern featured inboard hull lifting rings and "long" bullet
splashes in front of the drivers' auxiliary periscopes (circled in red). The top
edge of the glacis plate was neatly
The rear view mirrors were introduced on Fisher
M4A3(75)s in May 1944, just before the glacis pattern was altered. The
fitting for the mirror is circled. Note that the late type of hull lifting ring
casting seen here was standard on these tanks.
Fisher transitioned to the "mid"
glacis pattern in May 1944. The bullet splashes were shortened, and
perhaps as a labor saving measure, the top edge of the glacis plate
was no longer beveled, but simply square cut.
The "late" or "final" glacis
pattern was introduced around August 1944. It was
identical to the mid pattern except that the hull lifting rings
were repositioned "outboard" to the edge of the glacis. Photo courtesy of Paul and Lorén Hannah.
75mm Shermans were equipped with a shorter
gun travel lock than the ones used on 105mm and 76mm units. Many
surviving Shermans have been upgraded with a single piece locking arm,
but the less stable WW II configuration consisted of two "fingers." Both photos courtesy of Paul and Lorén Hannah.
Based on user feedback, a sheet
metal cover to protect the ventilator between the drivers'
hatches was introduced in August, 1944. The authors have not found any
evidence of modification kits for the covers during WW II, but have
noted that some surviving Shermans that obviously didn't have
this item factory installed, had it added later during postwar
upgrades. The U bolt that can be see on the uncovered example above
held the padlocks for the drivers' hatches. Right side photo courtesy of http://www.toadmanstankpictures.com/
Many of the earliest
M4A3(75)Ws were made with two small weep holes in the rear of the turret
splash. It was found that the small holes could become clogged with debris,
causing water to back up and foul the gasoline supply of the auxiliary
generator. It was thought that a single, large hole would alleviate the
problem. This transition appears to have been made around July, 1944. Note the
gap between the turret splash and the fuel cap bullet splash (1). The
"gap" appears to be typical of all Fisher built large hatch Shermans,
as well as Chrysler M4A3(76)s. On the other hand, the gap can be seen to have
been filled in by welding (inset) on Chrylser M4(105)s and M4A3(105)s until
about mid 1944. Right side photo courtesy of Paul and Lorén Hannah.
The blanket roll rack (item 1)
was standard on these tanks, although the fittings for the cleaning rods were
not added until the end of 1944. M4A3(75)W's with VVSS were fitted with a pair
of spare track holders (items 2). The sheet metal exhaust deflector (item 3) was
replaced by an armored deflector in 1945, too late to see much if any service on
the M4A3(75)W during WW II. The towing pintle (item 4) was another standard fitting. Sand
shields (item 5) were factory installed, although most crews removed them in
service. The rear view mirror (item 6) can be seen installed on this August
1944 production tank.
Early production M4A3(75)W's
had one-piece rear most engine deck plates (item 1). Differing from some other
types of Shermans, the lift handles were welded onto the engine deck (item 2). Shermans
had a total of four main fuel tanks. Unlike Ford built M4A3s, Fishers had
only a single filler point for the two fuel tanks located on either side of the
hull (items 3). The filler in the middle of the forward engine deck plate was
for the engine coolant expansion tank, and was protected by a bullet splash
guard (item 4). A small exhaust pipe for the auxiliary generator (item 5) was
extended to the rear of the tank in order to prevent asphyxiation of the crew. Photo courtesy of Christiaen Callens.
Starting around April 1944, the rear most engine deck plate was divided
into two pieces to make it easier for crewmembers to lift. The large, grated
engine deck doors were heavy, and door bumpers (item 1) were added to the
"ultimate" M4A3 series. The standard tool stowage arrangement can be
seen here. Only the track adjusting wrench is missing. Photo courtesy of Chris Hughes.
The turret antenna bracket on Fisher
75mm Shermans was fabricated from 3 pieces of plate, whereas it was a solid
chunk of steel on the D78461 turrets used by Chrysler on its M4 Composites
& 105 Shermans.
Another difference noted is
that all surviving Fisher built large hatch Shermans we’ve examined have a
series of weld beads mostly horizontal, but some vertical, that were applied to
fill in the differential housing bolt strip overcut. We consider this a Fisher
recognition feature, since all examples of Chryslers seen used a half round
piece welded in to fill in the overcut.
The above photo shows
"Sad Sack" USA 3081752 testing detachable grousers at Aberdeen
Proving Ground September 1944. The late type bogie units with
"upswept" return roller arms (items 1) were standard on the M4A3(75)W
VVSS. The "plain" drive sprockets (item 2) were standard as well.
wheels were primarily pressed spoked (left), but a few examples have been seen with
"unspoked" idlers (right).
Fisher seems to have used just about every
type of road wheel on its M4A3(75)W's with VVSS. The earliest production units
were equipped with either the welded spoke (A) or pressed spoke wheels (B). The
welded spoke with "small holes" (C) and the solid, concave wheels (D)
were introduced in Summer 1944, and appear to have been prevalent by Fall 1944.
Fisher Body did not provide
figures for the number of HVSS Shermans it manufactured. However, Ordnance
documents state that on January 1, 1945 all Sherman production incorporated
HVSS. 651 M4A3(75)W's were produced in 1945, and thus, we might conclude that
at all of them had HVSS. We don't know of any confirmed surviving examples, and
period photos are extremely rare. Registration Numbers listings for the US
Firefly Program indicate that at least 8 were converted in April and May, 1945
(inset). The M4A3(75)W HVSS seen above was photographed on the streets of
Exeter in 1945. While there is no visible USA Number to cross reference, it
seems highly likely that this tank was in the UK for Firefly conversion. As
yet, no photos of M4A3(75)W HVSS based Fireflies have turned up. Photo supplied courtesy of Peter D Thomas, copyright Ken
the photo for larger size
Due to their late date of manufacture, and average four to
five month (factory acceptance to combat issue) shipping times, very few M4A3(75)W with HVSS were
shipped overseas during WW II. In fact, 585 were listed in the US Inventory in
August, 1948. The foremost tank in the photo above is equipped with HVSS as
evidenced by the extended fender support (item 1). Curiously, it lacks the
"usual" type of gunner's periscope housing as seen on the second tank (item 2).
The third and a few others have what appear to be larger housings (item 3),
possibly necessary to accommodate an improved gunner's periscope. These tanks
were photographed at a staging area near Marseilles on June 19, 1945. They had
been processed and sealed for direct shipment to the Pacific, in the event they
were needed for the Invasion of Japan.
the photo for larger size
Very much like the preceding photo, this one
shows approximately forty M4A3(75)W HVSS at an Ordnance Depot in Manila, August
1, 1945. Again, larger than usual periscope housings can be seen on a number of
these (item 1). Many of the high bustle turrets have a "bulge" in the casting to
better accommodate the commander's vision cupola (item 2). Many can be seen to
have the "thin spot" armor patch, indicating they are recycled, low bustle
turrets, as explained on this page (items 3 & 3a). Note the late armored exhaust
deflector halves laying on the front of a couple of the tanks (item 4). The
2 inch smoke mortar was ordered eliminated in January, 1945, and the foremost
Shermans in this and the preceding photo appear to have had a "patch" welded
over the mortar hole (item 5).
The transitional nature of the introduction of changes
suggests that a few Fisher M4A3(75)s made before January 1, 1945 were equipped
with HVSS. At least one December 1944 example, USA 30115711, was photographed.
"Hardboiled" is thought to have served with the 16th Armored Division which
entered Pilsen, Czechoslovakia on May 6, 1945. It is another M4A3(75)W that was
factory built with an earlier D50878 low bustle turret recycled from the
retriever program. Photo courtesy of the Archival Collection, Patton Memorial Museum, Pilzen.
Surviving Shermans are displayed as monuments throughout
the world. One of the most poignant memorials is Serial Number 49709, USA
3082306. "Bourg la Reine" was part of the 3rd Squadron, 12th Cuirassiers
Regiment, 2nd French Armored Division, and was destroyed on the western
outskirts of Phalsbourg, France on November 21, 1944. The first hit killed
the driver. A second shell hit the turret ring, putting the tank out of action.
The tank was hit repeatedly as the crew bailed out. The crew was rescued by a
medical Half-Track, which was also targeted, causing more casualties among its
crew. Bourg la Reine "was saved according to General Leclerc's desire and
erected into a monument by the town of Phalsbourg in the grateful homage to the
the photo for larger size
Bourg La Reine was photographed a few days after it was
destroyed. Its original French Matricule (Registration) Number can be seen
as 96012 (left). About a week later, the tank was photographed again, by
which time it had been salvaged for useable parts by supporting maintenance
units following in the wake of the combat troops. The French did not officially
receive any M4A3(75)W's as Lend Lease. However, they were provided with many
different types of Shermans from US reserves in order to make up for losses.
This tank was manufactured in May 1944, and so has such early features as the
commander's split hatch, first type of smoke mortar aperture and "open"
ventilator between the drivers' hatches. It was probably one of the last units
to be built with the early glacis pattern.
the photo for larger size
Perhaps the most famous surviving Sherman in the
world is Serial Number 48935, USA 3081532 on display in McAuliffe Square in
Bastogne, Belgium. It was a battlefield recovery, enshrined on the Square in
1948. Not much was known of the tank's history, until the late 1990s, when some
excellent research by local historians revealed that it served
with B Company of the 41st Tank Battalion, 11th Armored Division and was
nicknamed "Barracuda." It was destroyed on December 30, 1944 in a meadow near
Renuamont. The left side photo was taken in June, 1954, while the right is
recent, & reflects the growth of Bastogne as a WWII tourist destination.
Fisher built Shermans have the tank's Ordnance Serial Number
stamped into the rear towing lugs (left), as well as on both edges of the
differential housing. The diff stamping is preceded by an "S" for "serial
number." Barracuda's can be seen above - S48935.
The Serial Number can also be found inside
the dataplate frame, beside the driver's position.
Fisher built Shermans have been seen to have a loose build sequence
number stamped on the left front (driver's side). These numbers have a letter
prefix. The "A" on Barracuda above indicates the tank was built as an M4A3(75)W.
Other letters noted are "E" for M4A3E2 (Jumbo), "M" for M4A3(76) and "W" for
M4A2(76). While the number stamped on Barracuda is 325, it would actually have
been the 321st M4A3(75) made by Fisher (accepted in March, 1944). Thus, our
characterization of the build sequence number as "loose." This number can be
useful in the event the tank's serial number can't be found.
In the postwar years, it was the intention of the
US Army to equip its forces with M26s or M4A3(76)HVSS's. Since there were not
enough of either type, a conversion program was initiated. The 585 M4A3(75)W
HVSS Shermans in the US inventory were converted by taking 76mm turrets, ammo
stowage bins, the "taller" gun travel locks, etc. from less desirable types like
M4A1(76) or M4A2(76) Shermans. Several of these conversions are on display in
the US. Above is Serial Number 65944 in Carlisle, Pa. This tank would have been
accepted as an M4A3(75)W with HVSS in February 1945. Aside from the serial
number, one tell tale sign of a 75mm to 76mm turret conversion is that the build
number has an "A" prefix, as mentioned earlier.
The authors would gladly receive serial & sequence number
reports from any readers who encounter a surviving Fisher built Sherman.