M4(75)s and M4A2(75)s manufactured by Baldwin Locomotive Works
Most of the information on this page is courtesy of Joe DeMarco. Note: some of the information on this page was compiled using a technique informally referred to as "counting heads." It is based on the ongoing study of period documents and photographs, as well as surviving Shermans. Due to the limited nature of available reference sources, some of the information presented here must be considered as "educated guesswork."

First of all, you have to identify the tank as being an M4(75) with small hatches. Please visit this page to do so.

Baldwin Locomotive Works began Sherman production at its plant in Eddystone, Pennsylvania in October 1942. After manufacturing just twelve M4A2s, the company switched over to the production of M4s. Baldwin made a total of 1233 M4(75)s with "Dry Stowage" from January, 1943 through January, 1944.

Production Order T-3029 : 12 M4A2(75) and 388 M4(75) tanks manufactured (Oct 1942 - May 1943)  : Serial number 1905 / USA 3010759 through  S/N 2304 / USA 3011158
Production Order T-3291 : 845 M4(75) tanks manufactured (May 1943 - Jan 1944) Serial Number 15435 / USA 3022537 through S/N 16279 / USA 3023381


Baldwin M4A2    Baldwin M4A2

Two photos of Serial Number 1916 (USA 3010770), the last of 12 M4A2s ever manufactured by Baldwin. This tank would have been accepted in Nov 1942. It has the fabricated bow machinegun, but a cast antenna bracket, like the ones seen on some ALCO or PSC Shermans. It also has the "bent rod" type of lifting rings.


Baldwin M4 Sherman

The above period photo was doctored for a Manual illustration, but shows a fairly typical M4 built by Baldwin Locomotive Works. We have included it so that the reader can see the direct vision visors of the drivers' hoods (all of the known surviving examples have the drivers' hood appliqué plates, which obscure the visors.) This tank was Serial Number 15527 / USA 3022629, indicating it was accepted in June, 1943. Direct vision was found to be a ballistic hazard, and as a result, the Ordnance Department eliminated it from the M4 design in August of 1942. It would take quite a few months before the new drivers' hood castings could be manufactured and procured, but most of the builders made the transition by the end of 1942. For reasons unknown, Baldwin appears to have been given an exemption from the design change, and produced ALL of its M4s with direct vision. 


Baldwin drawing

The above drawing attempts to show the multi-part glacis pattern along with the various components typically used on Baldwin built M4s. The siren is located in what the authors think of as "the second position." It's possible some early units may have had it located in "the first position" on the left front fender, but we have never come across a period photo that shows it there.


M4 Baldwin Direct Vision    M4 Baldwin Direct Vision

Although the direct vision slots were considered ballistic weak spots, it seems that Baldwin used them until the end of the production in January 1944. All of the known surviving examples can be seen to have the drivers' hood "appliqué" armor modification which was installed at the factory or in depots in the US, or in the UK before D-Day. In the two photos above, one can just see the direct vision visors hidden behind the drivers' hood applique plates. Note also the positive hatch lock mechanisms with equilibrator springs, as well as the periscope guards; modifications that were introduced in the second half of 1943, and retrofitted to many Shermans that had been built without them.


Baldwin hull antenna bracket    Baldwin hull antenna bracket

While most other small hatch Shermans utilized cast components, Baldwin M4s used several fabricated pieces, which had been developed by Fisher Body (see Fisher M4A2 page) as substitutes for castings in response to a shortage of foundry capacity. Two views of the fabricated antenna bracket as seen on Baldwin M4s. Note the sharpness and the distinctive "D" shape.


M4 Baldwin bow MG    M4 Baldwin bow MG

Two views of the fabricated bow MG socket.


M4 Baldwin head lamp socket

M4 Baldwin head lamp socket    M4 Baldwin head lamp socket

A comparison of the "fabricated" head lamp sockets versus the cast sockets used by most other manufacturers. These, as well as the fabricated antenna brackets and bow mg sockets were on nearly the entire production of small hatch M4A2(75)s  manufactured by Fisher Body. Indeed, the authors would speculate that Baldwin received their supplies of these components from Fisher Body.


M4 Baldwin head lamp socket

Note that the Baldwin built M4 on display in Brazil (shown above) has cast headlamp sockets, which would suggest Baldwin may have had more than one supplier for that particular part.  Another Baldwin "quirk" has to do with the head lamp plug holders. By mid 1943, the other builders had altered the orientation from parallel to the glacis to vertical. Baldwin appears to have continued with the original configuration to the end of production.


M4 Baldwin cast bullet splash guard    M4 Baldwin cast bullet splash guard

The turret bullet splash guard sections were castings, and they can often be seen with part numbers and foundry logos cast into them (circled in red). Note the very large numbers cast into the ventilator housing. This is an unusual feature that was most likely a trait of the particular company that made them. While not exclusive to Baldwin M4s, the "big number" ventilators can be seen on many of the surviving examples.


M4 Baldwin lifting rings    M4 Baldwin lifting rings

Nearly all the known surviving Baldwin M4s and tanks identified as such in period photos, have been seen with the most common type of hull lifting ring castings, which were installed on most Shermans produced from January/February 1943 onward. However, period photos and  two extant examples suggest that early production Baldwin M4s were outfitted with the so called "padded" hull lifting ring castings, as seen below. Based on the available evidence, the authors speculate that Baldwin transitioned from the "padded" to the most commonly used hull lifting rings in February, 1943.


Baldwin early ring    Baldwin early ring    Baldwin lifting ring

The "padded" hull lifting rings that appear on two early Baldwin M4(75)s, Serial Number 1940 and SN 1948 (both built in February, 1943). These lifting rings variants have never been seen by the authors on another Sherman, so these may have been exclusive to Baldwin. Note that SN 1940 has the more usual variant of "padded" hull lifting rings on the rear (center photo), whereas SN 1948 has the rare variant (right side photo).


M4 Baldwin peiod photo    M4 Baldwin period photo
Click on the picture for larger size

Period photos show Baldwin M4s with either pressed metal spoke (as on USA 3022577 above) or welded spoke bogie wheels. The tanks can also be seen with the most common type of sprocket. For want of a better term, the authors refer too this as "the plain sprocket."


M4 Baldwin rear engine doors    M4 Baldwin rear engine doors

Most or all of the other builders' M4 and M4A1 Shermans had engine access door hinges as seen in the above right photo. Oddly, most surviving Baldwin built M4s have been noted to have the M3 Lee / Grant type of hinges as seen in the left photo. The photos also show the rounded transition piece that joins the lower rear hull plate to the belly plate, and appears to have been typical of Baldwin M4 lower hull tubs. The little stops on either side of the engine access doors are not centered as on most or all other M4s & M4A1s, but are mounted a little towards the bottom.


M4 Baldwin period photo    M4 Baldwin period photo
Click on the picture for larger size

Occasionally, modelers ask if it is possible to determine the appearance of the front of a Sherman if all one has is a photo of the rear. In the case of the two 755th Tank Battalion M4s shown above, and based on the M3 style hinges that can be seen, we would suggest that these tanks would have had the unmodified Baldwin glacis pattern.


M4 Baldwin period photo    M4 Baldwin period photo
Click on the picture for larger size

The only other builder thought to have made M4s with direct vision was Pressed Steel Car. Coincidentally, both Baldwin and PSC M4s have vertical upper rear hull plates, as opposed  to the angled plates featured on ALCO, Pullman and Chrysler M4s. The above photos show an M4 used at Aberdeen Proving Ground in November 1943 as a test platform for the T34 Multiple Rocket Launcher. One can see the vertical upper rear hull plate along with the rounded appearance of the lower rear hull plate as it joins to the belly plate. This tank can be seen to be Serial Number 15747 / USA 3022849, indicating August 1943 acceptance. It has most of the modifications that were available at that time. These were mandated to be installed at the factory as the various modification kits entered the production pipeline, and provided the builder was able to obtain sufficient supplies of them. As a backup, Tank Depots were required to install any missing modifications to Shermans headed overseas. This particular M4 can be seen to have a "no pistol port" turret. These were just entering the production lines in August, and it is thought that Baldwin would have finished out their M4 program with this type of turret.


M4 Baldwin period photo    M4 Baldwin period photo
Click on the picture for larger size

Perhaps the most distinguished user of a Baldwin M4 was Lt. Col. Creighton Abrams, the commander of the 37th Tank Battalion, 4th Armored Division at the time of the Normandy breakout. Above are two views of his M4, "Thunderbolt V." The left photo shows the tank before D-Day. As with nearly every US Army M4 or M4A1 in the UK, Abrams' tank can be seen to have a good number of modifications. These changes were considered so essential that thousands of mod kits were shipped to England in order to bring the tanks up to late 1943 standards. The right side photo shows "Thunderbolt V" in France, August, 1944. Note how a hedgerow cutter has been outfitted to the early style one-piece differential housing. Baldwin M4s can be seen with either the three-piece or the early one piece diffs, until September 1943, when US manufacturers were required to change over to the late, sharp nosed type. For some reason, sand shields were considered an "Urgent" modification. Comparing the photos of Thunderbolt V, gives an idea of the prevailing view of the tankers toward sand shields.


M4 Baldwin Overloon

This photo shows the turret of the M4 nicknamed "After Hitler," which is certainly a 7th AD battle casualty and is still preserved in a museum in Overloon, Netherlands. This tank is in WW II format, unlike a lot of the other survivors. It would have been accepted in May, 1943, & from about May until the "no pistol port" turrets became available to production around August, Baldwin M4s would have had neatly welded up pistol ports like that one.


M4 Baldwin period photo    M4 Baldwin period photo
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Internal memos state that Baldwin Locomotive transitioned from the M34 to the M34A1 Gun Mount in April 1943. Thus, between 200 and 300 of their first Shermans would have been made with the M34. The M34A1 with telescopic sight was considered an essential modification before D-Day. That is why the reader would be hard pressed to find a photo taken in Northwest Europe of an M4 of any make with the early type gun mount. Not so in the secondary theater of Italy where some Shermans served relatively unmodified right to the end. The photo above left dateline Italy Jan. 5, 1944, shows an M4 named "Angela Mia" of an unidentified unit. A close examination of the original print revealed the Registration Number to be USA 3010772, which would correspond to the second Baldwin M4. Note the M34 Gun Mount, vertical upper rear hull plate and the "padded" lifting ring. The photo on the right shows a good portion of the 752nd Tank Battalion along with elements of the 805th Tank Destroyer Battalion, gathered in the Plaza Emanuel in Bologna, April 21, 1945. At the time, the 752nd had two companies of M4A3(76)s, but still retained one company of its older M4s and M4A1s. The Sherman in the center with direct vision and the distinctively shaped antenna bracket, certainly suggests a Baldwin M4. This tank appears to be nearly as built, except for the appliqué armor patch on the turret, one of the few modification kits sent to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations in 1943.


M4 Baldwin period photo
Click on the picture for larger size

The greatest portion of the M4s manufactured in 1943 were sent overseas. Some Baldwin M4s were provided as Lend Lease to the Commonwealth, including a few that were converted to Fireflies. Above is an M4 identified as Serial Number 15970, indicating October 1943 acceptance. The British used this tank in Italy in September 1944 to test Platypus Grousers. Note the late, sharp nosed differential housing introduced at Baldwin in September, 1943. This tank has been outfitted with practically every modification available in the Fall of 1943, including the gun travel lock and periscope guards. Based on internal documents, the authors posit that all of these mods were factory installed from late September until the end of production. While not easily apparent, this tank has a "no pistol port" turret.


Baldwin M4 Sherman

This photo shows Baldwin M4, Serial Number 15473, currently preserved in Rennes, France. There is a good chance that this tank may have served with the US Army or perhaps the French during WW II. When examining surviving Shermans, one must keep in mind that most no longer reflect their WW II appearance. Parts were substituted to keep the tanks running in the post war period, or even just to complete a monument display. For instance, # 15473 (May,1943 acceptance) would have been built with an M34A1 Gun Mount, not the M34 it has now. The commanders' vision cupola upgrade and many of the bogie wheels were most likely postwar additions as well.


Baldwin M4 Sherman SN 16276

Baldwin M4 Sherman SN 16276    Baldwin M4 Sherman SN 16276

These three photos (courtesy of Michen Van Loon) show Serial Number 16276. This is one of the last Shermans built by Baldwin (the last one being SN 16279) and was accepted in January 1944. It has
the late sharp nosed differential cover (part number E8543), and has direct vision blocks, which would tend to confirm that Baldwin used them until the end of the production. While this tank can be seen to have the typical fabricated bow mg socket, it has cast head lamp sockets such as were noted on the M4 in Brazil mentioned above. Most surprisingly, it has a cast hull antenna bracket - the only M4 identified as Baldwin-built that the authors have encountered with this feature. This "new" find raises a number of questions... Did others have the cast bracket? If so, was it limited to a few of the last ones? Or was it random throughout production?


M4 Baldwin serial number    M4 Baldwin serial number

Baldwin built Shermans have the Tank's Ordnance Serial Number stamped into the rear towing lugs. The serial number could also be found on the front towing lugs, but this information is not reliable, since the tank could have been repaired or upgraded with the differential housing from another one.

The authors would gladly receive such production data information from any readers who encounter a surviving Baldwin built Sherman.

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